Pneumonia: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis & Treatment

Pneumonia_ Symptoms, Causes, Treatment

Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It can serious and life-threatening disease. This infection inflames your lungs’ air sacs also known as alveoli. Pneumonia is a bacterial, viral or fungal infection of one or both sides of the lungs’ air sacs. Air sacs may fill up with fluid or pus by causing symptoms such as fever, cough, chills, and trouble breathing.

Pneumonia

The germ that causes pneumonia is contagious. Viral and bacteria spread the Pneumonia through cough, inhalation of airborne droplets from a sneeze. You can also get these types of pneumonia by coming into contact with that person who already suffers from this infection.

Symptoms  of pneumonia

Pneumonia can occur at any age, but it most dangerous for older people. Over the age of 65  people certain with such conditions like diabetes, heart failure or COPD(chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) or people who have a week immune system due to HIV/AIDS, organ, chemotherapy(a treatment for cancer), or blood and marrow system cell transplant procedures.

symptoms

Many factors affect how serious pneumonia is, such as the type of bacteria, your age and overall your health. It tens to be more serious for children under the age of 5 years.

The sign and symptoms include :

  • Fever, sweating and shaking chills
  • Rapid shallow breathing
  • Cough
  • Shortness of breath. That happens while doing normal activities or even while resting
  • Low energy, fatigue, loss of appetite
  • Sharp or stabbing chest pain that gets worse when you breathe or cough
  • Vomiting and  Nausea, especially in small children
  •  Headaches
  • Diarrhea
  • Dusky or purplish skin color from poorly oxygenated blood

Symptoms of infection, viral, bacterial and pneumonia:

Infection pneumonia symptoms:

Symptoms may change in certain populations. Newborns infants may not show any signs of the infection. They may vomit,  having a fever and cough or appear restless, tried or sick and without energy. For individuals that have chronic lung disease, those systems may worsen.

Older peoples and other peoples who have a serious illness or weak immune systems may have a fever and milder symptoms. Older peoples who have pneumonia sometimes have changed in mental awareness.

Viral infection symptoms :

Viral pneumonia usually develops over a period of several days. There may be higher fever and there may be blueness of the lips. Within a day by day, the symptoms typically get worse. With an increasing cough, shortness of breath and muscle pain.

Bacterial pneumonia  symptoms:

The symptoms of bacterial pneumonia can develop suddenly or gradually. Bacterial pneumonia is the most common form, tends to be more serious than other types of pneumonia with symptoms that require medical care.

Fever may arise as high 105 degrees with rapidly increased breathing and pulse rate. Lips and nail bed changes into bluish color due to lack of oxygen in the blood. That time a patient’s mental state may be confused.

 Causes of pneumonia

Viruses and bacteria are the main cause of pneumonia. It causes when the germs can settle in the alveoli and increases after a person breathes them in.

When the body sends white cell to attack the infection. That’s why the air sacs become inflamed. The virus and bacteria fil the lungs sacs with pus and fluid and build the cause of pneumonia.

They can be passed on through sneezing, coughing spread on a share to other peoples through touch.

There are several types of  agents that cause pneumonia:

 Bacteria pneumonia

Pneumococcal pneumonia is called as the most common type of bacteria. This bacteria is caused by streptococcus pneumonia germ that normally lives in the upper respiratory tract. Every year it infects 900,000 Americans.

Bacteria

Bacteria pneumonia occurs on its own and also develop after you’ve had the viral flu or the cold. The greatest risk for bacterial pneumonia include people recovering from surgery.

Some time of bacteria causes atypical pneumonia including:

  • Legionella pneumophila: It causes a dangerous form of pneumonia called legionnaire’s disease. Legionella is not passed from person to person.
  • Mycoplasma pneumonia is wide a tiny spread bacteria that usually infects people younger in 40 years old and especially those who live in crowded conditions.
  • Chlamydophila pneumonia causes upper respiratory infections year-round but also mild from pneumonia.

 Virus pneumonia

The influenza virus is that is the most common cause of viral pneumonia in adults. Most viral pneumonia is not serious and lasts a shorter time than bacterial pneumonia. This pneumonia most serious in people who have pre-existing heart or lung disease and pregnant women. Virus pneumonia on the first day it feels like flu, with symptoms like

 Virus pneumonia

  • Headache
  • muscle pain
  •  Fever
  •  sore throat
  •  loss of appetite
  •  dry cough

 Pneumonia diagnosis

Sometimes pneumonia is hard to diagnose because it may cause symptoms commonly seen in cold or influenza. Your doctor may be able to diagnose you with a certain type of pneumonia based on how you got your infection and type of germ causing your infection. After that, the doctor gives a physical exam. These may include:

Fluid sample

If the fluid in the pleural space of your chest, they may take a fluid sample using a needle placed between your ribs.

Blood test

To confirm the infection and to try to identify the germ that caused your illness.

Chest x-ray

chest x-ray helps your doctor to look for inflammation of your chest. An x-ray can also inform your doctor about its location and extent.

Sputum test

A sample of sputum taken after you have coughed deeply. After the test, it sent to a lab to be analyzed to identify the cause of infection.

Pulse oximetry

For this test, a small sensor is attached to your finger or ear. The sensor uses light to estimate how much oxygen in your blood. Pulse oximetry measures the amount of oxygen.

If you are considered a high-risk patient because of our age and your health. The doctor may include some additional tests including:

Arterial blood gas test

This is more accurate than oximetry. To measure the amount in your blood sample taken from an artery usually in your wrist.

CT scan

In which scanning the chest to get a better view of the lungs and look for abscesses or complications.

Pleural fluid culture

It removes a small amount of fluid from around tissues that surround the lung, to analyze and identify the cause of pneumonia.

Bronchoscopy

This procedure looks into the lung’s airways. If your treatment is not working well, Doctors may want to see whether something else is affecting your airways such as a blockage. They may also take a fluid sample of lung tissue.

Types of pneumonia

The doctor may also diagnosis you with a certain type of pneumonia. Pneumonia has many types including:

Ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP)

People who are on a ventilator machine to help them breathe.

Community-acquired pneumonia

It is the most type of pneumonia and is usually caused by pneumococcus bacteria. Most people get CAP by breathing in germs that live in a mouth, nose or throat.

 

Hospital-acquired pneumonia(HAP)

When people catch pneumonia during a hospital stay for another illness. It is more serious than CAP because you’re already sick.

Aspiration pneumonia

IT can occur if you inhale drink, food, vomit, or saliva from another mouth into your lungs. Aspiration pneumonia cause lung abscesses. This may happen when something disturbs your gag reflex like swallowing problems, brain injury, us of alcohol and drugs.

Treatment of pneumonia

Treatment of pneumonia depends on the type of pneumonia. When you get a pneumonia diagnosis your doctor will work with you on a treatment plan. If your pneumonia is caused by bacteria you will be given an antibiotic. To take all antibiotic until is gone, even though you will start to feel better in a couple of days. If you stop the medications your risk having the infection come back.

Typically antibiotics do not work against viruses. If you have viral pneumonia than a doctor prescribes you an antiviral medication to treat it.

Antifungal medications are used to fight fungal pneumonia. You may have to take this medication for several weeks to clear the infection.

Treatment at home

  • Drink plenty of food that helps to loosen secretions and bring up phlegm.
  • Coughing is one way your body works to get rid of an infection. Ask your doctor about the steps dose that you can take to get relief if your cough is preventing you from getting the rest.
  • Take steamy baths
  • Use a humidifier to help open your airways and ease your breathing
  • Drink warm beverages
  • Avoid smoking to let your lungs heal.
  • Get lots of rest
  • Control your fever with these medications:
    • Aspirin
    • Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as ibuprofen or naproxen
    • Acetaminophen

 Diet for pneumonia patients

There are following types of food that help to prevent pneumonia. They also increase your immunity and help in fighting infection. Here are some healthy diet tips for maintaining health in pneumonia. 

Green leafy vegetables 

Spinach, kale, lettuce are types of leafy vegetables that help in the healing of infection.

 Water 

If you are suffering from pneumonia than drinking water and also fluid-like juices help in losing mucus from the lungs.

Citrus foods

Citrus foods also contain antioxidants that help in boosting the immune system. Oranges, kiwi, berries having rich vitamin C.

Whole grains 

Whole grains like brown rice, oats, barley having carbohydrates that provide energy to the body. These grains increase the immune system. 

Protein 

The daily requirement of protein depends on weight body weight. Foods like beans, seeds, nuts, non-veg having rich properties of a protein.

Probiotics

Yoghurt contains the probiotics. It reduces the causes of pneumonia. It also boosts the immune system and increases the good bacteria in the gut  

Honey

Honey has antibacterial and antimicrobial properties.honey is used in cough and cold which are the symptoms of pneumonia. Its helps in healing the properties for a very long time.

Turmeric

Turmeric helps to reduce mucus and helps to take easy breathing. It has also contained anti-inflammatory properties that reduce chest pain.  

Ginger

Ginger antibacterial property can help in fighting pneumonia.it helps in reducing the chest pain. 

Conclusion:-

Within a week some peoples feel better and they are able to return their normal routines. For other peoples, it can take a month or more time to recover. When you cough Cover your mouth and nose with tissues. Disposed of used tissues in a closed waste container and wash tour hand often.

Try to limit your contact with your family and friends to help keep your germs from spreading to other people.

Avoid the use of alcohol and smoking. Drinking warm beverages and daily take a steamy bath. Stay away from that thing which increases the risk of pneumonia. Follow the instructions given by the doctor and take the medications on time.

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